NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) All rights reserved. This work is copyrighted, but permission is given to trainers and teachers to make. How engine works. TD. Note: 1ère. Page 1 sur 6. Smaïl GOUMEZIANE – Lycée Georges CORMIER. Worksheet. 1. How a car engine Works. The process by. How Car Engines unlimragesa.cf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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arrangement of various parts of IC engines. • Discus the new Four Stroke Petrol Engine Operation. M.S Ramaiah . in engines used in cars and. M.S Ramaiah. ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES. A heat engine is a machine, which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The combustion of fuel such as coal. Principles of SI and CI engine operation, 2-stroke engines,. 4-stroke engines ignition engine. Daimler/Maybach () Incorporated IC engine in automobile.
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Narayan Kumar. Danilo J Lara B. Yap Gee Shiuan. Salman Zafar. Sandro Ruiz. Muhammad Sohail Tariq. Some Diesel-electric locomotive engines operate on the 2-stroke cycle. The most powerful of them have a brake power of around 4.
See the external links for a in-cylinder combustion video in a 2-stroke, optically accessible motorcycle engine.
Historical design[ edit ] Dugald Clerk developed the first two cycle engine in It used a separate cylinder which functioned as a pump in order to transfer the fuel mixture to the cylinder. The crankcase and the part of the cylinder below the exhaust port is used as a pump.
The carburetor then feeds the fuel mixture into the crankcase through a reed valve or a rotary disk valve driven by the engine. There are cast in ducts from the crankcase to the port in the cylinder to provide for intake and another from the exhaust port to the exhaust pipe.
The height of the port in relationship to the length of the cylinder is called the "port timing". On the first upstroke of the engine there would be no fuel inducted into the cylinder as the crankcase was empty. On the downstroke, the piston now compresses the fuel mix, which has lubricated the piston in the cylinder and the bearings due to the fuel mix having oil added to it.
As the piston moves downward is first uncovers the exhaust, but on the first stroke there is no burnt fuel to exhaust. As the piston moves downward further, it uncovers the intake port which has a duct that runs to the crankcase.
Since the fuel mix in the crankcase is under pressure, the mix moves through the duct and into the cylinder. Because there is no obstruction in the cylinder of the fuel to move directly out of the exhaust port prior to the piston rising far enough to close the port, early engines used a high domed piston to slow down the flow of fuel.
Later the fuel was "resonated" back into the cylinder using an expansion chamber design. When the piston rose close to TDC, a spark ignites the fuel.
As the piston is driven downward with power, it first uncovers the exhaust port where the burned fuel is expelled under high pressure and then the intake port where the process has been completed and will keep repeating. Later engines used a type of porting devised by the Deutz company to improve performance.
It was called the Schnurle Reverse Flow system. DKW licensed this design for all their motorcycles. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used.
Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built. When Bosch developed the magneto it became the primary system for producing electricity to energize a spark plug.
Small engines are started by hand cranking using a recoil starter or hand crank.
Prior to Charles F. Kettering of Delco's development of the automotive starter all gasoline engined automobiles used a hand crank. The battery's charged state is maintained by an automotive alternator or previously a generator which uses engine power to create electrical energy storage.
The battery supplies electrical power for starting when the engine has a starting motor system, and supplies electrical power when the engine is off. The battery also supplies electrical power during rare run conditions where the alternator cannot maintain more than As alternator voltage falls below During virtually all running conditions, including normal idle conditions, the alternator supplies primary electrical power. Some systems disable alternator field rotor power during wide open throttle conditions.
Disabling the field reduces alternator pulley mechanical loading to nearly zero, maximizing crankshaft power. In this case, the battery supplies all primary electrical power. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it by the movement of the piston from bottom dead center to top dead center when the fuel is at maximum compression.
The reduction in the size of the swept area of the cylinder and taking into account the volume of the combustion chamber is described by a ratio. Early engines had compression ratios of 6 to 1. As compression ratios were increased, the efficiency of the engine increased as well.
With early induction and ignition systems the compression ratios had to be kept low.
With advances in fuel technology and combustion management, high performance engines can run reliably at ratio. With low octane fuel, a problem would occur as the compression ratio increased as the fuel was igniting due to the rise in temperature that resulted. Charles Kettering developed a lead additive which allowed higher compression ratios, which was progressively abandoned for automotive use from the s onward, partly due to lead poisoning concerns. Let's look at some key engine parts in more detail.
The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly. Valves The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel, and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder. Piston Rings Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1, miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly. Connecting Rod The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.